Ch. 17 – The Nuclear Energy Option

  Appendix—THE NUCLEAR ENERGY OPTION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER l

 

 

1. I. E. Sternglass,
Secret Fallout: Low Level Radiation front Hiroshima to Three Mile Island
(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981).

 

 

2. J. W. Gofman,
Radiation and Human Health
(Sierra Club Press, San Francisco, 1981).

 

 

3. H. Caldicott,
Nuclear Madness
(Bantam, New York, 1981).

 

CHAPTER 2

 

 

*Millirad is the unit of physical radiation exposure, as indicated by this definition, whereas millirem includes a correction for biological effectiveness. For X-rays, beta rays, and gamma rays, 1 millirad is equal to 1 millirem, but for alpha particles, 1 ruillirad is equal to 20 millirems.

 

 

1. P Nulty, “Get Ready for Power Brownouts,”
Fortune,
June 5, 1989.

 

2. U.S. Council for Energy Awareness, “USCEA 1988 International Reactor Survey” (1989).

 

3. Dept. of Energy/Energy Information Agency, Monthly Energy Review (March 1989).

 

CHAPTER 3

 

 

l. National Academy of Sciences Committee on Carbon Dioxide Assessment, “Changing Climate,” National Academy Press, 1983.

 

 

2. “The Greenhouse Effect: How It Can Change Our Lives,”
EPA Journal, Vol.
15, No. 1 (1989).

 

 

3. National Academy of Sciences,
Acid Deposition. Long Term Trends
(National Academy Press, 1986).

 

 

4. Science News, 136,
56 (July 22, 1989).

 

 

5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Trends in the Quality of the Nation’s Air” (1988).

 

 

6. R. Wilson, S. D. Colome, J. D. Spengler, and D. G. Wilson,
Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Burning
(Ballinger Publishing Co., Cambridge, 1980).

 

 

7. W Winkelstein et al.

“The Relationship of Air Pollution and Economic Status to Total Mortality and Selected Respiratory System Mortality for Men,”
Archives of Environmental Health 14,
162 (1967).

 

 

8. For list of references, see B. L. Cohen,
Before It’s Too Late
(Plenum Publishing, 1983) p. 114, ref. 30.

 

 

9. For list of references, see B. L. Cohen,
Before Its Too Late
(Plenum Publishing, 1983) p. 115, ref. 31.

 

 

10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides” (1981); “Air Quality Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen” (1980); “Health Assessment Document for Polycyclic Organic Matter,” EPA 600/9-7-008 (1979); “Health Assessment Document for Arsenic” 1980; “Air Quality Criteria for Lead” (1977).

 

 

11. H. Ozkaynak and J. C. Spengler, “Analysis of Health Effects Resulting from Population Exposure to Acid Precipitation,”
Environmental Health Perspective, 63,
45 (1985). This paper concludes that 6% of all deaths in the United States are due to air pollution. However, in private conversations with the authors, they now consider 2-5% to be a better estimate. If the U.S. population were in age equilibrium, there would be about 3 million deaths per year, which means that 60,000-150,000 deaths per year would be from air pollution. For simplicity we take a single intermediate value, 100,000.

 

 

12. J. M. Fowler,
Energy and the Environment
(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984).

 

 

13. B. L. Cohen, “Perspective on Occupational Mortality Risks,”
Health Phys. 40,
703 (1981).

 

 

14. “The Politics of Climate,”
EPRI Journal,
June 1988, p. 4.

 

CHAPTER 4

 

 

I. S. Rothman and S. R. Lichter, “The Nuclear Energy Debate: Scientists, the Media, and the Public,” Public
Opinion,
August 1982, p. 47.

 

CHAPTER 5

 

    1. S. Novick,
      The Careless Atom
      (Dell Publishing, New York, 1969), p. 105.

  1. See Chapter 5 Appendix.

 

3. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), “Natural Background Radiation in the United States,” NCRP Report No. 45 (1975).

 

 

4. “Report of the President’s Commission on The Accident at Three Mile Island,” Washington, D.C. (1979); “Three Mile Island, A Report to the Commissioners and to the Public,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission Special Inquiry Group; Ad Hoc Interagency Dose Assessment Group, “Population Dose and Health Impact of the Accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission Document NUREG-0558 (1979). Early assessment gave an average dose of 1.7 mrem, but later revisions reduced this to 1.2 mrem.

 

 

5. James Hardin (Kentucky Department of Human Resources), private communication. He was in charge of environmental monitoring in the area.

 

 

6.
Philadelphia Evening Bulletin
(May 6, 7, 8, 1979).

 

 

7. Private communication with health physicists from the Ginna plant.

 

 

8. L. Garfinkel, C. E. Poindexter, and E. Silverberg, “Cancer Statistics-1980,” American Cancer Society (1981).

 

 

9. United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), “Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation,” United Nations, New York (1977).

 

 

10. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Radiation Exposure from Consumer Products and Miscellaneous Sources, NCRP Report No. 56, Washington, D.C. (1977).

 

 

11. National Academy of Sciences Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, “Health Effects of Exposures to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation” (BEIR-V), Washington, D.C. (1990). Note discussion in Chapter 5 on how we correct for low dose rate.

 

 

12. United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), “Sources, Effects, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation,” United Nations, New York (1988).

 

 

13. B. L. Cohen and I. S. Lee, “A Catalog of Risks,”
Health Physics, 36,
707 (1979).

 

 

14. National Academy of Sciences Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, “Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited AlphaEmitters,” Washington, D.C., 1988.

 

 

15. U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), “Evaluation of Occupational and Environmental Exposures to Radon and Radon Daughters in the United States,” NCRP Report No. 78 (1984).

 

 

16. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP),
Risk from Indoor Exposure of Radon Daughters,
ICRP Publication No. 50 (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1987).

 

 

17. National Academy of Sciences Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR), “The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing

 

 

18. B. L. Cohen, “Alternatives to the BEIR Relative Risk Model for Explaining A-Bomb Survivor Cancer Mortality,”

Health Physics

52, 55 (1987).

 

 

19. U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), “Influence of Dose and Its Distribution in Time on Dose-Response Relationships for Low LET Radiation,” NCRP Report No. 64 (1980).

 

 

20. R. Garrison, U.S. Department of Energy, private communication, on transport accidents. Estimates for others from various sources of information.

 

 

21. C. C. Lushbaugh, S. A. Fry, C. E Hubner and R. C. Risks, “Total-Body Irradiation: A Historical Review and Follow-up,” in C. E Hubner and S. A. Fry (eds.),

The Medical Basis for Radiation Accident Preparedness

(Elsevier-North Holland, Amsterdam, 1980).

 

 

22. T. E Mancuso, A. Stewart, and G. Kneale,

Health Physics, 33,

369 (1977).

 

 

23. E.S. Gilbert, Batelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory Document PNL-SA-6341 (1978); G.B. Hutchison, B. MacMahon, S. Jablon, C. E. Land,

Health Physics,

37, 207 (1979); U.S. General Accounting Office, “Problems in Assessing the Cancer Risks of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation Exposure,” Report EMD-81, Washington, D.C. (1981); J. A. Reissland, “An assessment of the Mancuso study,” Publication NRPB-79, U.K. National Radiological Protection Board, Didcot, Berk. (1978); T. W. Anderson,

Health Physics,

35, 743 (1978); A. Brodsky, testimony before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., 8 February 1978; B. L. Cohen,

Health Physics,

35, 582 (1978); S. M. Gertz, ibid., 35, 723 (1978); E. S. Gilbert, “Methods of Analyzing Mortality of Workers Exposed to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation,” Report BNWL-SA-634, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington (May 1977); E. Gilbert and S. Marks,

Health Physics,

37, 791 (1979); ibid., 40, 125 (1981); J. W Gofman, ibid, 37, 617 (1979); D. J. Kleitman, “Critique of Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale Report” (prepared for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C., 1978); S. Marks, E. S. Gilbert, and B. D. Breitenstein, “Cancer mortality in Hanford workers,” Document IAEA-SM-224, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1978); R. Mole,

Lancet, i,

582 (1978); “Staff Committee Report of November 1976,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. (1976); “Staff Committee Report of May 1978,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. (1978); “The Windscale Inquiry,” Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London (1978); D. Rubenstein, “Report to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. (1978); L. A. Sagan, “Low-Level Radiation Effects: The Mancuso Study,” Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California (1978); B. S. Sanders,

Health Physics,

34, 521 (1978); F W Spiers, ibid.,

37,

784 (1979); G. W. C. Tait, ibid.,

37,

251 (1979).

 

 

24. The Media Institute, “Television Evening News Covers Nuclear Energy,” Washington, D.C. (1979).

 

 

25. B. L. Cohen, “Perspective on Genetic Effects of Radiation,”

Health Physics,

46, 1113 (1984).

 

 

26. E. B. Hook, “Rates of Chromosome Abnormalities at Different Maternal Ages,”

Obstetrics and Gynecology 58,

282 (1981).

 

 

27. J. M. Friedman, “Genetic Disease in the Offspring of Older Fathers,”

Obstetrics and Gynecology, 57,

745 (1981).

 

 

28. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP),

Recommendations of the International Connnission on Radiological Protection,

ICRP Publication No. 26 (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1977).

 

 

29. R. J. Lewis (ed.), “Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances,” U.S. Public Health Service, November (1981) (available by computer access). L. Fishbein, in

Chentical Mutagen,s, Vol.

4, A. Hollaender (ed.) (Plenum, New York, 1976) pp. 219ff.

 

 

30. K. Sax and H. J. Sax, “Radiomimetric Beverages, Drugs, and Mutagens,”

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,

55, 1431 (1966).

 

 

31. L. Ehrenberg, G. von Ehrenstein, and A. Hedgram, “Gonad Temperature and Spontaneous Mutation Rate in Man,”

Nature,

December 2, 1433 (1957).

 

 

32. U.S. Department of HEW, “Antenatal Diagnosis,” National Institutes of Health Publication No. 79-1973 (1979).

 

 

33. G. W. Beebe, H. Kato, and C. E. Land, “Mortality Experience of Atomic Bomb Survivors 1950-1974,” Radiation Effects Research Foundation Technical Report RERF TR 1-77 (1977). The data for Hiroshima and Nagasaki were added here.

 

 

34. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), “Review of NCRP Radiation Dose Limit for Embryo and Fetus in Occupationally Exposed Women,” NCRP Report No. 53 (1977).

 

CHAPTER 6

 

 

1. “Report of the President’s Commission on The Accident at Three Mile Island,” J. B. Kemeny (Chairman), Washington, D.C., October (1979).

 

 

2. M. Rogovin (Director), “Three Mile Island, A Report to the Commissioners and to the Public,” Washington, D.C., January (1980).

 

 

3. J. R. Lamarsh,

Introduction to Nuclear Engineering

(Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1975); S. Glasstone and W. H. Jordan,

Nuclear Power and its Environmental Effects

(American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, Ill., 1980).

 

 

4. G. Masche, “Systems Summary of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant,” Westinghouse Electric Co. (1971).

 

 

5. S. Hoffman and T Moore, “General Description of a Boiling Water Reactor,” General Electric Co. (1976).

 

 

6. “American National Standards for Decay Heat Power in Light Water Reactors,” American National Standards Institute ANSI/ANS-5. 1-1979.

 

 

7. “Reactor Safety Study,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission Document WASH-1400, NUREG 75/014 (1975).

 

 

8. “Analysis of Three Mile Island Unit 2 Accident,” Nuclear Safety Analysis Center Report NSAC-1, Palo Alto, California (July 1979); “Nuclear Accident and

 

 

Recovery at Three Mile Island,” Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Serial No. 96-14 (July 1980); “Investigation of the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island Accident,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Document NUREG-0600 (August 1979); Three Mile Island: The Most Studied Nuclear Accident in History,” Report to the Congress by the Comptroller-General, U.S. General Accounting Office Report EMD-80-109 (September 9, 1980).

 

 

9. Report of the Special Review Group, “Lessons Learned from Three Mile Island,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Document NUREG-0616 (December 1979).

 

 

10. “The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants and Related Facilities,” U.S. AEC Report WASH-1250 (July 1973).

 

 

11. B. L. Cohen, “Physics of the Reactor Melt-down Accident,”
Nuclear Science and Engineering, 80,
47 (1982).

 

 

12. R. Gillette, “Nuclear Reactor Safety,”
Science,
176, 492 (5 May 1972);177, 771, l Sept; 177, 867, 8 Sept; 177, 970, 15 Sept; 177, 1080 (22 September 1972).

 

 

13. I. Forbes, J. MacKenzie, D. E Ford, and H. W. Kendall, “Cooling Water,”
Environment
(January 1972), p. 40; D. E Ford and H. W. Kendall, “Nuclear Safety,”
Environment,
(September 1972).

 

 

14. M. L. Russel, C. W. Solbrig, and G. D. McPherson, “LOFT Contribution to Nuclear Power Reactor Safety and PWR Fuel Behavior,”
Proceedings, the American Power Conference, 41,
196 (1979); J. C. Lin, “Post Test-Analysis of LOFT Loss of Coolant Experiment L2-3,” EG&G Idaho Report EGG-LOFT5075 (1980); J. P Adams, “Quick Look Report on LOFT Nuclear Experiment L2-5,” EG&G Idaho Report EGG-LOFT-5921 (1982).

 

 

15. W Marshall (Chairman of Study Group), “An Assessment of the Integrity of PWR Pressure Vessels,” U.K. Atomic Energy Authority (March 1982).

 

 

16. W. A. Carbiener et al.,

“Physical Processes in Reactor Meltdown Accidents,” Appendix VIII to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Document WASH-1400 (1975).

 

 

17. “Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five U.S. Nuclear Power Plants,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Doc. NUREG-1150 (1989).

 

 

18. W. R. Butler, C. G. Tinkler, and L. S. Rubinstein, “Regulatory Perspective on Hydrogen Control for LWR Plants, “Workshop on Impact of Hydrogen on Water Reactor Safety, Albuquerque, New Mexico (January 1981); W. R. Butler and C. G. Tinkler, “Regulatory Perspective on Hydrogen Control for Degraded Core Accidents,” Second International Workshop on the Impact of Hydrogen on Water Reactor Safety, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1982).

 

 

19. “Hydrogen Control for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission Document dated August 13, 1980.

 

 

20. “Proposed Interim Hydrogen Control Requirements for Small Containments,” Memorandum from H. Denton to The NRC commissioners dated February 22, 1980, NRC Document SECY 80-107.

 

 

21. Union of Concerned Scientists, “The Risks of Nuclear Power Reactors,” Cambridge, Massachusetts (1977).

 

 

22. H. W. Lewis (Chairman), “Risk Assessment Review Group Report to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission,” NUREG/CR-400 (1978).

 

 

23. E J. Rahn and M. Levenson, “Radioactivity Releases Following Class-9 Reactor Accidents,” Health Physics Society, Las Vegas, Nevada (June 1982); C. D. Wilkinson, “NSAC Workshop on Reactor Accident Iodine Release,” Palo Alto,

 

 

California (July 1980); H. A. Morewitz, “Fission Product and Aerosol Behavior Following Degraded Core Accidents,”
Nuclear Technology, 53,
120 (1981).

 

 

24. R. Wilson, S. D. Colome, J. D. Spengler, and D. G. Wilson,
Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Burning.
(Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1980).

 

 

25. International Symposium on Areas of High Natural Radioactivity, Academy of Sciences of Brazil (June 1975).

 

 

26. W. Ramsay,
The Unpaid Costs of Electrical Energy
(Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1979).

 

 

27. “Draft NRC Evaluation of Pressurized Thermal Shock” (September 13, 1982); T A. Meyer, “Summary Report on Reactor Vessel Integrity for Westinghouse Operating Plants,” Westinghouse Electric Corp. Report WCAP-10019 (December 1981); “Summary of Evaluations Related to Reactor Vessel Integrity Performed for the Westinghouse Owner’s Group,” Westinghouse Electric Corp., Nuclear Technology Division (May 1982).

 

 

28. M. L. Wald, “Steel Turned Brittle by Radiation Called a Peril at 13 Nuclear Plants,”
New York Times
(September 27, 1981).

 

 

29. R. Immel, “Stress Corrosion Cracking,”
EPRI Journal
(November 1981).

 

 

30. “Steam Generator Tube Experience,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Document NUREG-0886 (1982).

 

 

31. “Report on the January 25, 1982 Steam Generator Tube Rupture at the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant,” NRC Document NUREG-0909 (April 1982).

 

CHAPTER 7

 

 

1. B. L. Cohen, “The Nuclear Reactor Accident at Chernobyl, USSR,”
American Journal of Physics, 55,
1076 (1987).

 

 

2. Soviet Report on the Chernobyl Accident, English Translation: U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (August 1986). 

 

3. United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation, “Sources, Effects, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation,” New York (1988).

 

CHAPTER 8

 

 

1. B. L. Cohen and I. S. Lee, “A Catalog of Risks,”
Health Physics, 36,
707 (1979). Numerous references are given to original sources of information.

 

 

2. Chap. 3, ref. 11.

 

 

3. U.S. National Academy of Sciences Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, “Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha Emitters,” (BEIR IV), Washington, D.C. (1988).

 

 

4. B. L. Cohen, “Perspective on Occupational Risks,”
Health Physics,
40, 703(1981).

 

 

5. National Center for Health Statistics,
Monthly Vital Statistics Reports, 36,
5 (Supplement)(1987).

 

 

6. B. L. Cohen, “Catalog of Risks Extended,” to be published by Task Force on Risk Analysis, American Association of Engineering Societies (1990).

 

 

7. World Resources Institute,
World Resources 1987
(Basic Books, New York, 1987).

 

 

8. C. L. Comar and L. A. Sagan, “Health Effects of Energy Production and Conversion,”
Annual Review of Energy, 1,
581 (1976); L. B. Lave and L. C. Freeburg, “Health Effects of Electricity Generation from Coal, Oil, and Nuclear Fuel,”
Nuclear Safety,
14(5), 409, (1973); S. M. Barrager, B. R. Judd, and D. W. North, “The Economic and Social Costs of Coal and Nuclear Electric Generation,” Stanford Research Institute Report (March 1976); Nuclear Energy Policy Study Group,
Nuclear Power-Issues and Choices
(Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977); National Academy of Sciences Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems,
Energy in Transition,
1985-2010 (W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1980); American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, “Health Evaluation of Energy Generating Sources,”
Journal of the American Medical Association,
240, 2193 (1978); H. Inhaber, “Risk of Energy Production,” Atomic Energy Control Board Report AECB-1119, Ottawa (1978); R. L. Gotchy, “Health Effects Attributable to Coal and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Alternatives,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Document NUREG-0332 (1977); D. J. Rose, P W. Walsh, and L. L. Leskovjan, “Nuclear Power-Compared to What?”
American Scientist,
64, 291 (1976); Union of Concerned Scientists, “The Risks of Nuclear Power Reactors,” H. Kendall (Director), Cambridge, Massachusetts (1977); Science Advisory Office, State of Maryland, “Coal and Nuclear Power” (1980); Norwegian Ministry of Oil and Energy, “Nuclear Power and Safety” (1978); Ohio River Basin Energy Study (EPA), “Impacts on Human Health from Coal and Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (July 1980); United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive, “Comparative Risks of Electricity Production Systems” (1980); Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, “Power Plant Cumulative Environmental Impact Report,” PPSP-CEIR-1 (1975); W. Ramsay,
UnPaid Costs of Electrical Energy
(Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1979); Legislative Office of Science Advisor, State of Michigan, “Coal and Nuclear Power” (1980); B. L. Cohen,
American Scientist,
64, 291 (1976); R. Wilson and W. J. Jones,
Energy, Ecology, and the Environment
(Academic Press, New York, 1974); H. Fischer et al.,

“Comparative Effects of Different Energy Technologies,” Brookhaven National Lab Report BNL 51491 (September 1981); D. K. Myers and H. B. Newcombe, “Health Effects of Energy Development,” Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Report AECL-6678 (1980); B.L. Cohen,
Befbre It’s Too Late
(Plenum, New York, 1983); American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, “Medical Perspective on Nuclear Power” (1989).

 

 

9. B. L. Cohen, Long-Term Consequences of the Linear-No Threshold Dose-Response Relationship for Chemical Carcinogens,
Risk Analysis 1,
267 (1981).

 

 

10. B. L. Cohen, “Society’s Valuation of Life Saving,”
Health Physics. 38,
33(1980). Numerous references to original sources of information are included.

 

 

11. B. L. Cohen, “Reducing the Hazards of Nuclear Power: Insanity in Action,”
Physics and Society,
16, 3, 29(1987).

 

 

12. B. L. Cohen, “Cost Effectiveness of Reducing Radon Levels in Homes,”

Journal of Nuclear Medicine,

29, 268(1988).

 

 

1. United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., “Phase IX Update (1987) Report for the Energy Economic Data Base Program” (July 1988). Also, “Phase x Update Report” (September 1989).

 

 

2. A. Reynolds, “Cost of Coal vs. Nuclear in Electric Power Generation,” U.S. Energy Information Administration Document (1982).

 

 

3. W. W Brandfon. “The Economics of Nuclear Power,” American Ceramic Society, Cincinnati (1982).

 

 

4. 1. Spiewak and D. E Cope, “Overview Paper on Nuclear Power,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL/TM-7425.

 

 

5. J. H. Crowley, “Nuclear Energy-What’s Next,” Atomic-Industrial Forum Workshop on the Electric Imperative, Monterey, CA (1981).

 

 

6. Long Island Lighting Company. “The Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant: An Overview” (1982).

 

 

7. M. R. Copulos,
Confrontation at Seabrook,
The Heritage Foundation (1978).

 

CHAPTER 10

 

 

l. J. J. Taylor, “Improved and Safer Nuclear Power”
Science,
244, 318(April 21, 1989).

 

 

2. J. J. Taylor, K. E. Stahlkopf, D. M. Noble, and G. J. Dau, “LWR Development in the U.S.A.,-
Nuclear Engineering and Design
109, 19 (1988).

 

 

3. J. Catron, “New Interest in Passive Reactor Designs,”
EPRI Journal, 14.
3, 4 (April 1989).

 

 

4. R. Livingston, “The Next Generation,” Nuclear Industry (July 1988).

 

 

5. K. E. Stahlkopf, J. C. DeVine, and W. R. Sugnet, “U.S. ALWR Programme Sets Out Utility Requirements for the Future,”
Nuclear Engineering International
(November 1988), p. l6.

 

 

6. R. Vijuk and H. Bruschi, “AP-600 Offers a Simpler Way to Greater Safety, Operability, and Maintainability,”
Nuclear Engineering International
(November 1988), p. 22.

 

 

7. K. Hannerz, “Applying PIUS to Power Generation,”
Nuclear Engineering International
(December 1983).

 

 

8. K. Hannerz, “Making Progress on PIUS Design and Verification,”
Nuclear Engineering International
(November 1988), p. 29.

 

 

9. “Nuclear Power: The New Generation,”

IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)

Bulletin, 331,
No. 3(entire issue) (1989).

 

 

10. Edison Electric Institute, Statistical Yearbook of the Electrical Utility Industry, 1981.

 

 

11. U.S. Energy Information Agency, “Historical Plant Cost and Annual Production Expenses for Selected Electricity Generating Plants,” DOE/EIA-0455 (1987).

 

 

12. U.S. Department of Energy, “Nuclear Energy Cost Data Base,” DOE/NE-0095 (September 1988).

 

 

13. Study Group of the Committee on Financial Considerations, “A Comparison of the Future Costs of Nuclear and Coal-Fired Electricity, An Update,” U.S. Council for Energy Awareness (1987).

 

 

14.
Nuclear- News
(July 1982), p. 48.

 

CHAPTER 11

 

 

1. R. Wilson, S. D. Colome, J. D. Spengler, and D. G. Wilson,
Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Burning
(Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1980).

 

 

2. A. G. Croff and C. W. Alexander, “Decay Characteristics of Once-Through LWR and LMFBR Spent Fuels, High Level Wastes, and Fuel Assembly Structural Materials Wastes,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL/ TM-7431 (1980).

 

 

3. Reference 1 gives the risk from sulfur dioxide (S02) as 3.5 x 10-5/year for 1 microgram SO, per meter3 of air. An average person inhales 7,000 meters3 of air per year, so this corresponds to inhaling 7,000 micrograms, or 0.007g, of SO2. The deaths per gram of SO, are then (3.5 x 10-5/0.007 =) 0.005. An average coal-burning plant produces 3 x 1Osg of SO, per day; this could then cause (3 x 109 x 0.005 =) 1.5 million deaths if it were all inhaled by people.

 

 

4. See Figure 1 (Chapter 11), which gives the effects from eating all the waste produced in one year. This number must be divided by the number of days per year to obtain the effects from one day.

 

 

5. B. L. Cohen, “Ocean Dumping of Radioactive Waste,”
Nuclear Technology, 47,
163 (1980). Some of the numbers quoted in that paper have been changed due to later data, but these are incorporated into the results quoted here.

 

 

6. “Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (February 1981); “Air Quality Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report (June 1980).

 

 

7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Assessment Document for Polycyclic Organic Matter, Report EPA-600/9-79-008 (1979).

 

 

8. B. L. Cohen, “Risk Analysis of Buried Waste from Electricity Generation,”
American Journal of Physics, 54,
38 (1986). This contains references to the original papers on which many of the analyses here are based.

 

 

9. These are reviewed by C. M. Koplik, M. E Kaplan, and B. Ross, “The Safety of Repositories for Highly Radioactive Waste,”
RevieK’s of Modern Physics, 54,
269 (1982); Interagency Review Group, Report to the President, U.S. Department of Energy Report TID-29442 (1978).

 

 

10. B. L. Cohen, “Probability for Human Intake of an Atom Randomly Released into the Ground, Rivers, Oceans, and Air,”
Health Physics, 47,
281 (1984).

 

 

11. B. L. Cohen. “High Level Waste from Light Water Reactors,”
Revie~rs of Modern Physics, 49, 1
(1977); The plans for waste burial have changed somewhat since that time, including a threefold dilution of the waste in glass. This is taken into account in the numbers given here.

 

 

12. J. A. Reuppen, M. A. Molecke, and R. S. Glass, “Titanium Utilization in Long Term Nuclear Waste Storage,” Sandia National Lab Report, SAND81-2466 (1981).

 

 

13. M. E Kaplan, “Characterization of Weathered Glass by Analyzing Ancient Artifacts,” in
Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste, C.
J. M. Northrup (ed.) (Plenum, New York, 1980).

 

 

14. K. J. Schneider and A. M. Platt, “High Level Radioactive Waste Management Alternatives,” Battelle Northwest Laboratory Report BNWL-1900 (1974).

 

 

15. B. L. Cohen, “Analysis, Critique, and Re-evaluation of High Level Waste Repository Water Intrusion Scenario Studies,”
Nuclear Technology, 48, 63 (1980)

 

 

16. B. L. Cohen, “Discounting in Assessment of Future Radiation Effects,”
Health Physics, 45,
687 (1983).

 

 

17. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, “What is Tuff?” (1988); “What Happens During Site Characterization?” (1988); “Why Yucca Mountain?” (1988).

 

 

18. G. Russ, “Notes from Underground,”
Nuclear Industry
(Spring 1989), p. 13.

 

 

19. B. L. Cohen, “A Simple Probabilistic Risk Analysis for High Level Waste Repositories,”
Nuclear Technology, 68,
73 (1985).

 

CHAPTER 12

 

 

1. National Academy of Sciences Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, “Health Risks of Radon” (BEIR-IV), 1988.

 

 

2. B. L. Cohen, “Risk Analysis of Buried Wastes from Electricity Generation,”

American Journal of Physics, 54, 38 (1986).

This is a review article which gives references to the original papers.

 

 

3. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50. Appendix 1; U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Regulatory Guides 1.109-1.113(1976). These specify expenditure of $1,000/man-rem. Dividing this by the risk given in Chapter 5, 260 x l0-6 per man-rem, gives $4 million per cancer death averted.

 

 

4. United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation, “Sources, Effects, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation,” United Nations, New York (1988).

 

 

5. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 61.

 

 

6. U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), “Alternatives for Long Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste,” Document ERDA-77-42/1 (1977).

 

 

7. L. R. Brown, “World Food Resources and Population,” Population Reference Bureau (1981).

 

 

8. B. L. Cohen, “The Situation at West Valley,”
Public Utilities Fortnightly (September 27, 1979), p.26.

 

 

9. Western New York Nuclear Service Center Study, U.S. Department of Energy Report TID-28905-2 (1980).

 

 

10. R. M. Jefferson and H. R. Yoshimura, “Crash Testing of Nuclear Fuel Shipping Containers,” Sandia National Lab Report SAND 77-1462 (1978).

 

 

11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,” Document NUREG-1070 (1977).

 

 

12. R. P Sandoval and G. J. Newton, “A Safety Assessment of Spent Fuel Transportation Through Urban Regions,” Sandia National Laboratory Report SAND 81-2147 (1981); R. E Sandoval, “Safety Assessment of Spent Fuel Transport in an Extreme Environment,”
Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management, 3,
5 (1982).

 

 

13. Z. A. Medvedev,
Ne” Scientist, 72,
264 (1976);
72,
692 (1976);
74,
761 (1977);
76,
352 (1977).

 

 

14. J. R. Trabalka, L. D. Eyman, and S. I. Auerbach, “Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet Nuclear Accident,”
Science, 209,
345 (18 July 1980).

 

 

15. D. M. Soran, and D. B. Stillman, “An Analysis of the Alleged Kyshtym Disaster,” Los Alamos National Lab Report LA-9217-MS(1981).

 

 

16. International Atomic Energy Agency Information Circular, “Report on a Radiological Accident in the Southern Urals on 29 September 1957,” INFCIRC/368 (28 July 1989).

 

CHAPTER 13

 

 

1. E R. Best and M. J. Driscoll,
Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 34,
380 (1980).

 

 

2. B. L. Cohen, Breeder Reactors-A Renewable Energy Source,
American Journal of Physics, 51,
75 (1983).

 

 

3. R. Avery and H. A. Bethe, “Breeder Reactors: The Next Generation,” in
Nuclear Power: Both Sides,
M. Kaku and J. Trainer (eds.) (Norton, New York, 1982).

 

 

4. T. G. Ayers et al.,

LMFBR Program Review, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (1978); Report of the Task Forces to the LMFBR Review Steering Committee, Energy Research and Development Administration (April 6, 1977).

 

 

5. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Review of National Breeder Reactor Program (January 1976).

 

 

6. R. Wilson, “Report on the Safety of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor,” Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, CA, 1976).

 

 

7. J. B. Yasinsky (ed.), “Position Papers on Major Issues Associated with the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor,” Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Madison, Pennsylvania) 1978.

 

 

8. Milton R. Benjamin,
Washington Post
(July 20, 1982).

 

 

9. Atomic-Industrial Forum, “Light Water Reactor Fuel Cycles-An Economic Comparison of the Recycle and Throw-away Alternatives” (February 1981). This presents analyses by six different groups.

 

 

10. Robert Lesch, “World Reprocessing Facilities,”
Worldwide Nuclear Power
(January 1982).

 

 

11. Shelby T. Brewer, “Letter to Recipients of Worldwide Nuclear Power” (dated March 4, 1982).

 

 

12. W. Meyer, S. K. Loyalka, W. E. Nelson, and R. W. Williams, “The Homemade Bomb Syndrome,”
Nuclear Safety, 18,
427 (1977).

 

 

13. C. Starr and E. Zebroski, “Nuclear Power and Weapons Proliferation,” American Power Conference (April 1977).

 

 

14. J. McPhee,
The Curve of Binding Energy
(Ballantine Books, New York, 1975).

 

 

15. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Safeguarding a Domestic Mixed Oxide Industry Against a Hypothetical Subnational Threat,” NUREG-0414 (May 1978).

 

 

16. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Regulatory Guide 5.55; Standard Format and Content of Safeguards Contingency Plans for Fuel Cycle Facilities’ (1978); also “Regulatory Guide 5.54: Standard Format and Content of Safeguards Contingency Plans for Nuclear Power Plants” (1978).

 

 

17. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Regulatory Guide 5.56: Standard Format and Content of Safeguards Contingency Plans for Transportation” (1978).

 

 

18. M. Willrich and T. B. Taylor,
Nuclear Theft: Risks and Safeguards
(Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1974).

 

 

19. E H. Schmidt and D. Bodansky,
The Energy Controversy: The Fight over Nuclear Power-
(Albion Press, San Francisco, 1976).

 

 

20. B. L. Cohen, “Plutonium-How Great is the Terrorist Threat,”
Nuclear Engineering International
(February 1977). The quote from Kinderman is given there. It was taken from a book, but I cannot recall the name of the latter.

 

 

21. U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Safeguards Program, Background Statement (March 10, 1975).

 

 

22. R. Nader, speech at Lafayette College (Spring 1975).

 

 

23. International Commission on Radiological Protection (1CRP), Task Group on Lung Dynamics, “Deposition and Retention Models for Internal Dosimetry of the Human Respiratory Tract” Health Physics 12, 173 (1966)

 

 

24. National Academy of Sciences Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR), “Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation” (1980).

 

 

25. United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), “Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation” (1977).

 

 

26. B. L. Cohen, “Hazards from Plutonium Toxicity,”
Health Physics, 32,
359 (1977).

 

 

27. The Medical Research Council,
The Toxicity of Plutonium
(Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1975); C. W. Mays, “Discussion of Plutonium Toxicity,” in R. G. Sachs (ed.),
National Energy Issues-How Do We Decide
(Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1980).

 

 

28. W. J. Bair, “Toxicity of Plutonium,”
Advances in Radiation Biology, Vol.
4, p. 225 (1974).

 

 

29. J. H. Rothchild,
Tomorrow’s Weapons
(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

 

 

30. J. E Park, W. J. Bair, and R. H. Busch, “Progress in Beagle Dog Studies with Transuranium Elements at Battelle-Northwest,”
Health Physics, 22,
803 (1972).

 

 

31. A. R. Tamplin and T. B. Cochran, “Radiation Standards for Hot Particles,” Natural Resources Defense Council Report (1974). Also, “Petition to Amend Radiation Protection Standards as They Apply to Hot Particles,” submitted to EPA and AEC (February 1974).

 

 

32. National Academy of Sciences, “Health Effects of Alpha Emitting Particles in the Respiratory Tract,” Environmental Protection Agency Document EPA 520/4-76-013 (1976); National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), “Alpha Emitting Particles in Lungs,” NCRP Report No. 46 (1975); United Kingdom National Radiological Protection Board, Report R-29 and Bulletin No. 8 (1974); W J. Bair, C. R. Richmond, and B. W. Wachholz, “A Radiological Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Dose from Plutonium,” U.S Atomic Energy Commission Report WASH-1320 (1974); see also The Medical Research Council, ref. 27.

 

 

33. G. L. Voelz, “What We Have Learned About Plutonium from Human Data,”
Health Physics, 29
(1975).

 

 

34. J. W. Gofman, “The Cancer Hazard from Inhaled Plutonium,” Committee for Nuclear Responsibility Report CNR 1975-1, reprinted in Congressional RecordSenate 31, (July 1975), p. 14610.

 

 

35. R. W. Albert et al.,
Archives of Environmental Health, 18,

738 (1969);
Archives of’Environmental Health, 30,
361 (1975).

 

 

36. W J. Bair, “Review of Reports by J. W. Gofman on Inhaled Plutonium,” Battelle Northwest Laboratory Report BNWL-2067; C. R. Richmond, “Review of John W. Gofman’s Report on Health Hazards from Inhaled Plutonium,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL-TM-5257 (1975); J. W. Healy et al.,

“A Brief Review of the Plutonium Lung Cancer Estimates by John W. Gofman,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report LA-UR-75-1779 (1975); M. B. Snipes et al.,

“Review of John Gofman’s Papers on Lung Cancer Hazard from Inhaled Plutonium,” Lovelace Foundation (Albuquerque, New Mexico) Report LF-51

 

 

UC-48 (1975); “Comments Prepared by D. Grahn,” Argonne National Laboratory (1975).

 

 

37. R. Nader,
Family Health
(January 1977), p. 53.

 

 

38. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, “Meteorology and Atomic Energy.” p. 97ff (1968). This gives the calculational procedures used in ref. 26.

 

 

39. K. Stewart, in
The Resuspension of Particulate Material from Surfaces,
B. R. Fish (ed.), (Pergamon Press, New York, 1964); L. R. Anspaugh, P L. Phelps, N. C. Kennedy, and H. C. Booth, Proceedings of the Conference on Environmental Behavior of Radionuclides Released in the Nuclear Industry, International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna, 1975).

 

 

40. H. R. McLendon et al.,

International Atomic Energy Agency Document IAEASM-199/85, p. 347 (1976)-Savannah River Plant; R. C. Dahlman, E. A. Bondietti, and L. D. Eyman, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Sciences Division Publication 870 (1976)-Oak Ridge; E W. Wicker, Colorado State University Report COO-1156-80 (1975)-Rocky Flats, Colorado; E. M. Romney, A. Wallace, R. O. Gilbert, and J. E. Kinnear, International Atomic Energy Agency Document IAEA-SM-199/73, p. 479 (1976) -Eniwetok.

 

 

41. J. Gofman,
National Forum
(Summer, 1979).

 

 

42. B. L. Cohen, “Plutonium Containment,”
Health Physics, 40,
76 (1981).

 

 

43. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Federal Register, 40,
23420 (1975).

 

 

44. U.S. Atomic Energy Agency, “Plutonium and Other Transuranic Elements: Sources, Environmental Distribution, and Biomedical Effects,” Document WASH-1359 (1974).

 

 

45. J. R. Lamarsh,
Introduction to Nuclear Engineering
(Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1975).

 

 

46. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP),
Report of the Task Group on Reference Man,
ICRP Publication 23 (Pergamon Press, New York, 1975).

 

 

47. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP),
Recommendations of ICRP,
ICRP Publication 26 (Pergamon Press, New York, 1977).

 

CHAPTER 14

 

 

1. B. L. Cohen, “Cost per Million BTU of Solar Heat, Insulation, and Conventional Fuels,”
American Journal of Physics, 52,
614 (1984).

 

 

2. R. H. Annan and J. L. Stone, “The U.S. National Photovoltaics Program, Investing in Success,”
Solar Cells, 26,
135 (1989).

 

 

3. Solar Energy Research Institute,
Photovoltaics Technical Information Guide,
(Second Edition), p. 58 (1988).

 

 

4. U.S. Department of Energy,
Photovoltaic Energy Program Summary
(1988).

 

 

5. U.S. Department of Energy,
Solar Thermal Energy Program Surnntarv
(1988).

 

 

6. U.S. Department of Energy,
Wind Energy Program Summary
(1988).

 

 

7. U.S. Department of Energy,
Energy Storage and Distribution Program Summary (1988)

 

[Table of Contents]